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||See nonnative species.
||Eukaryotic, multicelled organisms usually capable of mobility and
unable to produce their own food (heterotrophs), such as sponges, jellyfishes, arthropods
(insects, shrimp, lobsters), mollusks (snails, clams, oysters, octopuses), fish,
amphibians (frogs, toads, salamanders), reptiles (turtles, lizards, alligators,
crocodiles, snakes), birds, and mammals (kangaroos, bats, cats, rabbits, elephants,
whales, porpoises, monkeys, apes, humans). See carnivores, herbivores, omnivores.
||See mature community.
||Interaction between organisms of different species in which one type of
organism benefits and the other type is neither helped nor harmed to any great degree.
||See ecological succession.
||Two or more individual organisms of a single species (intraspecific
competition) or two or more individuals of different species (interspecific competition)
attempting to use the same scarce resources in the same ecosystem.
|competitive exclusion principle
||No two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche
indefinitely in a habitat where there is not enough of a particular resource to meet the
needs of both species. See ecological niche, fundamental niche, realized
||A discrete event that disrupts an ecosystem or community. Examples of
natural disturbances include fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, and floods. Examples
of human-caused disturbances include deforestation, overgrazing, and plowing.
|early successional plant species
||Plant species found in the early stages of succession that (1) grow
close to the ground, (2) can establish large populations quickly under harsh conditions,
and (3) have short lives. Compare late successional plant species, midsuccessional
||Process in which communities of plant and animal species in a
particular area are replaced over time by a series of different and often more complex
communities. See primary succession, secondary succession.
||Plant that uses its roots to attach itself to branches high in trees,
especially in tropical forests.
||See nonnative species.
||Situation in which two competing species have equal access to a
specific resource but differ in how quickly or efficiently they exploit it. See interference
competition, interspecific competition.
||Eukaryotic, mostly multicellular organisms such as mushrooms, molds,
and yeasts. As decomposers, they get the nutrients they need by secreting enzymes that
speed up the breakdown of organic matter in the tissue of other living or dead organisms.
Then they absorb the resulting nutrients.
||Situation in most advanced industrialized countries, in which
ever-increasing economic growth is sustained by maximizing the rate at which matter and
energy resources are used, with little emphasis on pollution prevention, recycling, reuse,
reduction of unnecessary waste, and other forms of resource conservation. Compare low-throughput
economy, matter-recycling economy.
||Plant or animal on which a parasite feeds.
||Community at an early stage of ecological succession. It usually has a
low number of species and ecological niches and cannot capture and use energy and cycle
critical nutrients as efficiently as more complex, mature communities. Compare mature
||See nonnative species.
||Species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is
being degraded. Compare keystone species, native species, nonnative
||Situation in which one species limits access of another species to a
resource, regardless of whether the resource is abundant or scarce. See exploitation
competition, interspecific competition.
||Members of two or more species trying to use the same limited resources
in an ecosystem. See competition, competitive exclusion principle, intraspecific
||Two or more organisms of a single species trying to use the same
limited resources in an ecosystem. See competition, interspecific competition.
||Species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem.
Compare indicator species, native species, nonnative species.
|late successional plant species
||Mostly trees that can tolerate shade and form a fairly stable complex
forest community. Compare early successional plant species, midsuccessional
||Economy based on working with nature by (1) recycling and reusing
discarded matter, (2) preventing pollution, (3) conserving matter and energy resources by
reducing unnecessary waste and use, (4) not degrading renewable resources, (5) building
things that are easy to recycle, reuse, and repair, (6) not allowing population size to
exceed the carrying capacity of the environment, and (7) preserving biodiversity. See environmental
worldview. Compare high-throughput economy, matter-recycling economy.
||Economy that emphasizes recycling the maximum amount of all resources
that can be recycled. The goal is to allow economic growth to continue without depleting
matter resources and without producing excessive pollution and environmental degradation.
Compare high-throughput economy, low-throughput economy.
||Fairly stable, self-sustaining community in an advanced stage of
ecological succession; usually has a diverse array of species and ecological niches;
captures and uses energy and cycles critical chemicals more efficiently than simpler,
immature communities. Compare immature community.
|midsuccessional plant species
||Grasses and low shrubs that are less hardy than early successional
plant species. Compare early successional plant species, late successional plant
||Type of species interaction in which both participating species
generally benefit. Compare commensalism.
||Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem.
Compare indicator species, keystone species, nonnative species.
||Species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or
accidentally introduced into an ecosystem by humans. Compare native species.
||Consumer organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or
animal, known as the host, over an extended period of time. The parasite draws nourishment
from and gradually weakens its host; it may or may not kill the host. See parasitism.
||Interaction between species in which one organism, called the parasite,
preys on another organism, called the host, by living on or in the host. See host, parasite.
||See slowly degradable pollutant.
||First integrated set of plants, animals, and decomposers found in an
area undergoing primary ecological succession. See immature community, mature
||First hardy species, often microbes, mosses, and lichens that begin
colonizing a site as the first stage of ecological succession. See ecological
succession, pioneer community.
||Eukaryotic, mostly multicellular organisms such as algae (red, blue,
and green), mosses, ferns, flowers, cacti, grasses, beans, wheat, rice, and trees. These
organisms use photosynthesis to produce organic nutrients for themselves and for other
organisms feeding on them. Water and other inorganic nutrients are obtained from the soil
for terrestrial plants and from the water for aquatic plants.
||When there is scientific uncertainty about potentially serious harm
from chemicals or technologies, decision makers should act to prevent harm to humans and
the environment. See pollution prevention.
||Situation in which an organism of one species (the predator) captures
and feeds on parts or all of an organism of another species (the prey).
||Organism that captures and feeds on parts or all of an organism of
another species (the prey).
||Interaction between two organisms of different species in which one
organism, called the predator, captures and feeds on parts or all of another organism,
called the prey.
||Organism that is captured and serves as a source of food for an
organism of another species (the predator).
||Ecological succession in a bare area that has never been occupied by a
community of organisms. See ecological succession. Compare secondary succession.
||Cell that does not have a distinct nucleus. Other internal parts are
also not enclosed by membranes. Compare eukaryotic cell.
||Eukaryotic, mostly single-celled organisms such as diatoms, amoebas,
some algae (golden brown and yellow-green), protozoans, and slime molds. Some protists
produce their own organic nutrients through photosynthesis. Others are decomposers and
some feed on bacteria, other protists, or cells of multicellular organisms.
||Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large
numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period of time. Compare K-selected
||See r-selected species.
||Process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem so species with
similar needs (overlapping ecological niches) use the same scarce resources at different
times, in different ways, or in different places. See ecological niche, fundamental
niche, realized niche.
||Ecological succession in an area in which natural vegetation has been
removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed. See ecological succession.
Compare primary succession.
||See ecological succession, primary succession, secondary
||Any intimate relationship or association between members of two or more
species. See symbiotic relationship.
||Species interaction in which two kinds of organisms live together in an
intimate association. Members of the participating species may be harmed by, benefit from,
or be unaffected by the interaction. See commensalism, interspecific competition,
mutualism, parasitism, predation.